Thought for the day
Today we celebrate the community of faith, being in communion with all the saints, a day of both thanksgiving and vision. Thanksgiving because of the example and inspiration of the saints, who have come to maturity, to the measure of the full stature of Christ. (Ephesians 4:13). Vision because our Gospel today describes the path we must take to make the same journey home to God. If we wish to join the saints both now and into eternity, we must make our own the “mission statement” of Jesus, which is the Sermon on the Mount and especially the opening invitation to true happiness.
Jesus you are our teacher within and today we ask your help. Just as you have brought our brothers and sisters to full maturity in you, so also guide us and be with us as we walk your Way. By your grace, may we too be counted among the saints in the present moment and in the life to come. Amen.
Matt 5:1 Seeing the crowds, Jesus went onto the mountain. And when he was seated his disciples came to him. 2 Then he began to speak. This is what he taught them:
Matt 5:3 How happy are the poor in spirit: because the kingdom of Heaven is theirs. 4 Happy are those who mourn: because they shall be comforted. 5 Happy are the gentle: because they shall have the earth as inheritance. 6 Happy are those who hunger and thirst for uprightness: because they shall have their fill. 7 Happy are the merciful: because they shall have mercy shown them. 8 Happy are the pure in heart: because they shall see God. 9 Happy are the peacemakers: because they shall be recognised as children of God. 10 Happy are those who are persecuted in the cause of uprightness: because the kingdom of Heaven is theirs.
Matt 5:11 Happy are you when people abuse you and persecute you and speak all kinds of calumny against you falsely on my account. 12 Rejoice and be glad, for your reward will be great in heaven; because this is how they persecuted the prophets before you.
(Revised New Jerusalem Bible, adjusted: “happy” instead of “blessed”; vv. 4 and 5 have been inverted; because added.)
(i) The word “happy” (makarios) occurs some 50 times in the New Testament. The first is in Matthew 5:3 and the last is in Revelation 22:14.
(ii) The Beatitudes in Matthew are to be interpreted within the Sermon on the Mount and alongside the corresponding narrative section, chapters 8-9. Matthew leaves out the woes of Luke, but he has his own dire warnings in his Gospel!
(iii) The translation of the word makarios is disputed. It should almost certainly not be translated as “blessed” because, at least in English, that sounds like blessed by God. Happy is more accurate, but with the added notes of peace (shalom in the rich sense) and wholeness (teleios, also in the rich sense). A recent study suggests “flourishing” as the best way to capture the resonance of the original.
Kind of writing
(i) In rhetorical terms, this text is an introduction (exordium), designed to get the attention, good will and receptivity of the hearers. It achieves these aims (a) by stirring the desire for happiness; (b) by naming the present situation and (c) by proposing attitudes and actions that lead to salvation now and into eternity.
(ii) Matthew’s Beatitudes are both Wisdom sayings and Apocalyptic pronouncements. The double reference keeps the beatitudes firmly rooted in Jewish tradition. At the same time, Matthew wrote in Greek and his choice of words suggests a strong cultural link to the Greek philosphical tradition about true human happiness as well.
(iii) In this gospel, there are nine beatitudes, in a significant order:
1-4 passive attitudes
5-8 active attitudes
(with 8 as a lead-in to 9)
9 beatitude on persecution
Beatitude 8 is from Matthew’s own source. Cf. 1 Peter 3:14. It is significant that Matthew has nine beatitudes. The ninth is an expansion of the eighth, bringing the series to a climax. The change of address, in the ninth, to “you” forms a bridge to 5:13-16.
Old Testament background
In general, beatitudes occur in two settings: (a) in the Wisdom literature and (b) in the Apocalyptic literature. The wisdom beatitude is a desire for practical advice, which will lead to a peaceful life; the apocalyptic beatitude encourages endurance until God acts and reverses the present calamity. Isaiah 61, with its note of reversal and joy is the primary subtext for the Beatitudes. The whole of Isaiah 61 and Psalm 1 should be read.
New Testament foreground
(i) The Sermon on the Mount is the first of five great discourses in Matthew’s Gospel. It is sometimes given the title “Blessings: entering the Kingdom” and could be read in light of the fifth discourse (23-25), “Woes: the coming of the Kingdom.”
(ii) Within that overall pattern, the Sermon on the Mount has several possible outlines. The structure below lets us see that the opening beatitudes may helpfully be read in conjunction with the corresponding exhortations in 7:13-27.
A 5:1-2 Narrative Introduction
B 5:3-16 Opening exhortation
C 5:17-20 Fulfilment of the Law and the Prophets
D 5:21-48 The Antitheses (5 - one is “extra”; plus expansions)
E 6:1-6 Almsgiving
a how to pray
F 6:7-15 Prayer b THE LORD’S PRAYER
a* why forgiveness
E* 6:16-18 Fasting
D* 6:19-17:11 (5 negative imperatives plus expansions)
C* 7:12 Fulfilment of the Law and the Prophets
B* 7:13-27 Closing exhortation
A* 7:28 Narrative Conclusion
(iii) The Beatitudes are found also in Luke 6:20-26, matched by the corresponding four woes. It is possible to compare both traditions to see if there is a more original form behind the texts we have now in our hands. The Q (Saying Source) beatitudes may have been thus:
Happy the poor
for of them is the kingdom of God
Happy the mourners
for they shall be consoled
Happy the hungry
for they shall be satisfied
With that in mind, we can notice the editorial changes and additions in Matthew 5, which reveal his particular theology of the Beatitudes.
Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, Rejoice. Let your gentleness be known to everyone. The Lord is near. Do not worry about anything, but in everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. And the peace of God, which surpasses all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. (Phil 4:4–7)
Verse 1 The motivation for the teaching is implied by “when he saw the crowds”, that is, he felt compassion. Cf. When he saw the crowds, he had compassion for them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd. (Matthew 9:36)
The location is the symbolic mountain of Moses, thus carrying forward the Mosaic typology of this Gospel. Jesus sits, i.e. he takes up a position of authority. The immediate audience is the disciples and the message is first of all for them. Later, the crowds also react (7:28).
Verse 2 The Greek is more wordy (opening his mouth, he began to teach them), lending solemnity and suspense.
Verse 3 Poor: 11:5; 19:21; 26:9, 11. In comparison with the Q beatitude above, Matthew has “spiritualised” this teaching. Certainly for the Lucan community, poor meant “without money” (as in the Acts). Matthew does not exclude real poverty, so a good interpretation of Matthew’s version is: Happy are those who know their need of God (NEB). It really means those who are in want, living in dire straits: such people have come to recognise that God alone is their source of hope and life.
Verse 4 Mourn: 9:15. In the ordinary sense, mourners are those experiencing bereavement and loss. To mourn is a sign of resistance in the Old Testament, where the kings insist on “joy” even when grief is appropriate. Thus, there is prophetic permission to keep “the wound of the negative open” (Kierkegaard) while assuring the hearers of end-time reversal in the coming kingdom of God.
Verse 5 Humble: 11:29; 21:5. Linguistically, both “poor” (ptōchos) and “meek” (praus) go back to the anawim Yahweh (the poor of Yahweh) of the Hebrew Bible. On account of that, this beatitude closely resembles the one in v. 3. The range of meanings of praus is: to be gentle, humble, considerate.
Verse 6 Righteousness: 3:15; 5:6, 10, 20; 6:1, 33; 21:32. A comparison with the Q beatitudes above sheds light. Matthew has added “and thirst for righteousness”. As a student of the Hebrew Bible, he is especially interested in justification/righteousness before God. The most pastoral way to translate righteousness is “to be in right relationship with God.” All the Gospels were written after Paul; nevertheless, Matthew has his own teaching on righteousness.
Verse 7 To show mercy: 9:27; 15:22; 17:15; 18:33; 20:30-31. Compare with Matthew 7:2 and, perhaps, with 6:14. The related adjective “merciful” does come up again in this Gospel: Matthew 9:13; 12:7; 23:23. Mercy and forgiveness are hugely significant, then and now.
Verse 8 Heart: 5:28; 6:21; 9:4; 11:29; 12:34, 40; 13:15, 19; 15:8, 18-19; 18:35; 22:37; 24:48. Found also in Psalm 71:3. Cf. Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup, so that the outside may become clean too! (Matthew 23:26)
Verse 9 Peace is a gift of proclamation according to Matthew 10:13, but see also, for contrast, 10:34. Behind the Greek word for peace, we may presume the richer range of meanings in shalom, i.e. a quality of relationship with the other and not simply inner calm.
Verse 10 Persecution: 5:10-12, 44; 10:23; 23:34. Reality breaks in here, as we read outside of the Sermon: When they persecute you in one town, flee to the next; for truly I tell you, you will not have gone through all the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes. (Matthew 10:23; cf. 23:34).
Verse 11 The relationship with the Lord is explored later in the Gospel: Matthew 10:18, 39; 16:25; 19:5, 29.
Verse 12 Rejoice: 2:10; 5:12; 18:13; 26:49; 27:29; 28:9. Contrast: Woe to you when all speak well of you, for that is what their ancestors did to the false prophets. (Luke 6:26)
Pointers for prayer
The Beatitudes offer a future promise but also a present reality. At first reading some Beatitudes may seem to describe circumstances that you would like to avoid at all costs. Read them slowly. Stay with each one for a while.
Let yourself get a sense of the paradox involved in each one. Perhaps you have had an experience of a deeper and more authentic life, a blessing, when…
1. You were poor - you knew your need of God
2. You mourned – could feel for others
3. You were meek – not emotionally out of control
4. You hungered and thirsted for some cause
5. You were merciful rather than vengeful
6. You were pure in heart – a person of integrity, whose actions and intentions correspond
7. You were a peacemaker
8. You were persecuted because you stood for something
All-holy God, you call your people to holiness. As we keep the festival of your saints, give us their meekness and poverty of spirit, a thirst for righteousness, and purity of heart. May we share with them the richness of your kingdom and be clothed in the glory you bestow. Through Christ our Lord. Amen.